New discoveries in the mechanisms of apoptosis and cell survival have been a major breakthrough in biological sciences in recent years of the new millennium. Apoptosis is genetically programmed cell death in any nucleated cells of the organism. This type of cell death occurs through different mechanisms from those seen in necrosis and complement lysis of any cell, without affecting the neighboring cells. In the nature, apoptosis and cell survival are very important not only for the elimination of cells that acquire unstable features, became useless, and detrimental for the organism, but also for the mechanisms of numerous biological events and disorders seen during the lifespan of many organisms from the embryo-logical period to death. The discovery of mechanisms of apoptosis and cell survival has enabled the development of new therapeutic strategies in heart diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, AIDS, and many disorders. Combination of opportunities afforded by degenerative medicine with those of new therapeutic approaches of regenerative medicine such as stem-cell therapy and somatic cell nuclear transfer will possibly introduce new horizons and rational therapeutic approaches in the foreseeable future.