This study evaluated biological resistance of composites produced from polypropylene and either wood or bamboo by using two different levels of particle content and three different particle sizes. Composite specimens containing higher particle content and smaller particle size resulted in increased mass losses in decay resistance tests against Tyromyces palustris, a standardized test fungus, Schizophyllum commune, and Pycnoporus coccineus. As particle content increased, mass losses in laboratory termite resistance tests increased; however, decreased particle size caused slightly decreased mass losses. Higher mass losses in bamboo-composites were obtained compared to mass losses in wood-composites in biological resistance tests. There is no significant effect of particle size on water absorption and thickness swell. The IR spectrums of composite specimens showed that significant changes were seen in the wood components following the application of heat during the manufacturing process. While the IR spectrum of WPC specimens with 70% wood was similar to the wood, the composite specimen with 50% wood displayed similarities to polypropylene.