The existence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in those children who had previous bladder augmentation with gastric patch has not been described before. In this report, a girl with bladder exstrophy, who previously underwent gastric augmentation is presented. She had multiple admissions to our unit with persisting urinary symptoms (perineal pain, dysuria, hematuria) and gastric symptoms as well. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test results for HP infection were positive, and plasma gastrin level was high. The histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen showed HP infection in the gastric part of the reconstructed neobladder. This report indicates that the pediatric surgeon should think about HP infection in gastrocystoplasty patients to eliminate the potential risks of HP colonization. Copyright (C) 1997 by W.B. Saunders Company.