Histopathological Changes in the Myocardium Caused by Energy Drinks and Alcohol in the Mid-term and Their Effects on Skeletal Muscle Following Ischemia-reperfusion in a Rat Model

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Demirel A., Basgoze S., Cakilli K., Aydin U., ERKANLI ŞENTÜRK G., Diker V. O., ...More

ANATOLIAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, vol.27, no.1, pp.12-18, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.14744/anatoljcardiol.2022.2003
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.12-18
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Although energy drinks have been consumed for many years, their effects on the cardiovascular system continue to be investigated. Today, the most frequently used area of energy drinks is the entertainment sector, and this study investigates the effects of energy drinks and alcohol consumption on rats' limb and myocardium tissue. Methods: Forty Wistar Albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. Energy drinks were given to the first group (the energy drink group), alcohol was given to the second group, and energy drinks and alcohol were given to the third group Redbull-Alcohol (RA). Blood samples, leg muscles, and heart tissues were studied after the ischemia-reperfusion model was created at the infrarenal level. Results: In the histopathological examination of heart muscles, the damage was significantly more severe in the RA group than in the control group (P < .05). There was no significant change in the RA group in the limb muscle; however, muscle fiber abnormality was higher. The energy drink group was more prone to carbon dioxide retention and hypoxia, resulting in respiratory acidosis. (P = .05). Lactate was significantly higher in the energy drink group (P = .002). Glucose concentrations of energy drink and RA groups were higher (P = .02). Conclusion: The high lactate values of the energy drink group and more damaged fibers in the striated muscles in the RA group showed that they are more susceptible to ischemia. Long-term energy drinks and alcohol use may cause damage to the heart muscle and endothelium. Also, the effects of long-term alcohol and energy drink use on the respiratory system should be investigated with more specific studies.