Anzer honey is well known in Turkey and used for its medicinal properties, especially for pharyngitis, tonsillitis, ulcers and cancer. In this study, we investigated whether Anzer honey, which is shown to have antioxidant, anti-tumoral, and anti-inflammatory properties, has a protective effect against X-ray induced genotoxic damage by cytogenetic methods. Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from 20 healthy volunteers were divided into two groups and cultivated by conventional methods. Study group lymphocytes were treated with 10% diluted honey while those in the control group were not. Both groups were exposed to a high dose (2 Gy) X-ray at the 48th hour of culture. Conventional cytogenetic staining and Giemsa banding methods were applied to evaluate chromosomal breakage and ring formation. Micronucleus frequencies were determined by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Paired sample t test was used to compare groups. Anzer honey, which was analyzed melissopalynologically, was used. Micronucleus frequency was significantly decreased in the study group (CI = 348.75 +/- 31, median 326, min. 98, max. 704) compared to the control group (CI = 489.10 +/- 27, median 500, min. 216, max. 645) (p = .001). Chromosomal breakage was also significantly decreased in the study group (CI = 118.70 +/- 16, median 109, min. 12, max. 316) compared to the control group (CI = 233.60 +/- 25, median 225, min. 65, max. 492) (p < .0001). This is the first study indicating that genotoxic damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy volunteers induced by X-radiation may be prevented or alleviated by adding Anzer honey in vitro. These results encourage further research about the protective effects of honey.