Recently, lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] levels were found to be elevated in various types of cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the role of serum Lp (a) in early and advanced stages of breast cancer. Pasting venous blood samples were collected from 18 patients with Stage I, and 21 patients with Stage IV disease and were analysed for Lp (a). The results were compared with data from 22 healthy female controls. Patients with both Stage 1 and Stage IV disease had significantly higher (p < 0.001) Lp (a) concentrations than did healthy controls. Lp (a) was also found to be significantly elevated in Stage IV patients when compared with the Stage I group. Our data suggest that there is a highly significant association between Lp (a) and the presence and progression of breast cancer, and that serum Lp (a) determination may provide an aid in patients with breast cancer for both diagnostic purposes and the follow-up of the disease.