Background: The Non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) is transferred from father to son in an unchanged form without recombination in meiosis. Since Short tandem repeats on Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) in this region do not have any recombination, these regions are identical in all male individuals who are related to the father except for mutations. Therefore, these regions gain importance in identification for the forensic sciences or determination of paternity. In determination of paternity, if mismatches are observed between father and child, population-specific mutation rates should be used to determine whether it is a mutation or a true exclusion. Therefore in this study, we aim to determine the mutation rates of 17 Y-STR loci in Turkey.