Objectives: To evaluate the effect of genetic amniocentesis on the preterm delivery rate in women with uterine myoma. Methods: The volume of each fibroid and the relation to the placenta, myometrium and uterine corpus were recorded. Amniocentesis was performed by an experienced operator, if indicated. Results: During the study 14,579 pregnant women were examined and 234 had complications of uterine myomas (1.61%). Forty-three women delivered prematurely (19.46%). The results revealed that multifocal fibroids in relation to the myometrium, uterine myoma subjacent to the placenta, total myoma volume greater than 150 cm(3) are statistically significant independent risk factors for preterm delivery, while amniocentesis was not found to be an independent risk factor for preterm delivery. Conclusions: Although having uterine myoma is a fairly known cause of preterm delivery, second trimester genetic amniocentesis does not seem to have any additional adverse effect on the preterm delivery rate in women with uterine myomas.