The number of children infected by Helicobacter pylori is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to identify demographic and maternal risk factors affecting H. pylori positivity in asymptomatic children. One hundred sixty-five asymptomatic children, 75 (45%) females, and 90 (55%) mates, between 2 and 12 years of age (mean 6.8 +/- 3.0 years) were tested for the presence of H. pylori stool antigen. The ages, genders, weights, heights, and breastfeeding histories of the children were reported. Information concerning the age and education levels of the mothers, number of siblings, and family incomes was also taken. H. pylori stool antigen positivity was 30.9% (n = 51) of the children and 30.4% (n = 48) of their mothers. H. pylori positivity was detected in 70.6% (36) of children whose mothers were positive (P < 0.001, r = 0.64). Lower education level of mothers, lower family income, poor living conditions, and higher numbers of siblings were correlated with higher H. pylori positivity in children. The children living in the worst conditions and having less well educated mothers were at higher risk for H. pylori infection. The best way to decrease the prevalence of H. pylori infection in children is to educate women about how to protect themselves and their offspring from H. pylori infection.