A Comprehensive Artificial Sweat Study for Quantitation of Nickel and Other Inorganic Elements Released from Imitation Earrings Purchased in Istanbul Market


BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, cilt.194, ss.303-312, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 194 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s12011-020-02042-w
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.303-312


Element sensitization is frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis, and Ni is the main reason for this condition owing to daily use of different Ni-containing items. European Union established a limit of 0.2 mu g/cm(2)/week Ni release for the items by the Ni Directive in 2004. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of element release of imitation earrings sold in different points of Istanbul with different prices and consider the element release levels including 29 trace and toxic elements. After calculation of released nickel amounts, 31.80% of earrings (71 of 223) were observed over the limit of European Commission Directive's migration limit. Minimum and maximum nickel release amounts were found as 0.21 and 30.11 mu g/cm(2)/week, respectively, and mean level was found 3.24 mu g/cm(2)/week among 71 positive earrings. Results showed that essential part of imitation earrings used especially by women release nickel particles over the European Commission Directive's migration limit. In addition, other elements such as Cu, Cr, and Co were found to be in the structure of the imitation earrings, as well as high amounts of toxic element Pb.