Objective: To compare the outcomes of labor induction in women with a history of 1 cesarean section (CS) who undergo trial of labor. Methods: A prospective observational study of 702 pregnant women who had 1 previous CS was conducted at Women's Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, between April 2003 and April 2004. Those with no history of vaginal delivery were assigned to one group and those with a history of vaginal delivery were assigned to another group, and the latter group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the results of trial of labor. Results: Of these 702 women with a history of 1 CS, 62.4% also had a history of vaginal delivery. After trial of labor, vaginal delivery occurred more often among women with no history of vaginal delivery (64.8%). Moreover, trial of labor resulted in a vaginal delivery more often in women who were delivered only once and by CS (87.7%) than in women who also had a history of vaginal delivery (79.2%). Conclusion: These findings indicate that women who have had a CS should strongly consider natural delivery for subsequent pregnancies. (c) 2005 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.