An inhibitor of diphtheria toxin- and endogenous transferase-dependent ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) has been found in the cytoplasmic fraction from rat liver. We provide evidence that this cytoplasmic inhibitor corresponds to actin, which gives rise also to inhibition of polyphenylalanine (polyPhe) synthesis. Both globular monomeric (G-actin) and filamentous (F-actin) forms of actin appear to be inhibitory on the action of elongation factors 1 and 2 (eEF1 and eEF2) in polyPhe synthesis with the inhibitory effect of G-actin proving to be stronger. Some component(s) in the postribosomal supernatant (S-130) fraction and also DNase I prevent actin-promoted inhibition of polyPhe synthesis. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.