Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare genetic disease that is characterized by a severe cutaneous photosensitivity causing unrecoverable deformities, chronic hemolytic anemia requiring blood transfusion program, and by fatal systemic complications. A correct and early diagnosis is required to develop a management plan that is appropriate to the patient's needs. Recently only one case of X-linked CEP had been reported, describing the trans-acting GATA1-R216W mutation. Here, we have characterized two novel X-linked CEP patients, both with misleading hematological phenotypes that include dyserythropoietic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. We compare the previously reported case to ours and propose a diagnostic paradigm for this variant of CEP. Finally, a correlation between phenotype variability and the presence of modifier mutations in loci related to disease-causing gene is described.