In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in on experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h doily restraint for 27 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to hove anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F 4,938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.