This paper presents an integrated, earthquake-damage assessment that standardizes and quantifies methods of analysis. The proposed methodology evaluates all damage-causing phenomena, both individually and in combination. This approach inherently relates to soil-structure interactions by quantifying site-specific geotechnical and structural properties. Specifically considered is ground shaking, the primary damage-causing phenomenon. Also evaluated are the collateral effects of liquefaction, degradation of seismic-bearing capacity and slope failure (landslides). The methodology incorporates a literature-derived probabilistic assessment of damage-causation, and is interpreted and presented as single numbers deemed "Damage Grades." These damage grades integrate the initial probabilistic evaluation with professional experience and judgment in order to determine potential damage to a particular structure at a particular location. This methodology was applied, with success, to two different locations in Istanbul, Turkey. It should be tested by engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers, for it may be applicable to earthquake-prone areas elsewhere. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.