We compared the endocrine and metabolic changes during acute emergency abdominal surgery performed using either laparoscopy or laparotomy in children. Twenty-nine children aged 1.5-14 years were assigned to undergo laparoscopy (n = 15) or laparotomy (n = 14) with a standard anaesthesia technique. Arterial blood gases and blood prolactin, cortisol, interleukin-6, glucose, insulin, lactic acid and epinephrine levels were determined 5 min after the induction of anaesthesia, 30 min into surgery and at the end of surgery. Intra-operative heart rate and mean arterial pressure were stable in both groups. In the laparoscopy group, slight respiratory acidosis occurred during surgery (p < 0.01) but there were no changes in the laparotomy group. Insulin, cortisol, prolactin, epinephrine, lactate and blood glucose levels increased in both groups (p<0.05) although there was no difference between the groups. The surgical stress and trauma imposed by laparoscopy seems similar to that caused by laparotomy in children undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.