Revue Francaise d'Administration Publique, vol.161, no.1, pp.89-102, 2017 (Scopus)
© Ecole nationale d'administration (ENA). Tous droits réservés pour tous pays.Among the measures proposed by the European Union to encourage technological innovation and employment, the Open Innovation Strategy and Policy Group (OISP), hosted by the European Commission, defined a model of "user-centered innovation". The European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL), a body at arm length distance from the European Union, is in charge of the accreditation of living labs, research and development units - public or private - that adopt this model. The analysis of the institutional dynamic among these three levels puts forward the unforeseen evolution of the model itself. Conceived as a mean of attaining the ends determined by the EU, user-centered innovation has become an end in itself, applicable to a variety of questions and projects.