Five Taraxacum species are recorded for the first time for the flora of Turkey: T. caudatuliforme (sect. Taraxacum), T. erythrospermum (sect. Erythrosperma), T. fascinans (sect. Palustria), T. oblongatum (sect. Taraxacum) and T. darbandense (sect. Erythrocarpa). Descriptions, distributions in Turkey and photographs are provided. Chromosome numbers were counted, and for T. erythrospermum (2n=16), T. oblongatum (2n=24) and T. caudatuliforme (2n=24), the latter is reported for the first time.