in: Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques, Amalia Patane,Naci Balkan, Editor, Springer, London/Berlin , Berlin, pp.333-365, 2012
This chapter focuses on photoconductivity (PC) and transient spectroscopy techniques including photo-induced transient spectroscopy (PITS) and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Spectral photoconductivity provides a powerful tool for measuring the band-gap energy and optical transitions in semiconductors. On the other hand, transient photoconductivity can be used to determine the time constants associated with specific recombination processes. PITS and DLTS are extensively used to characterize deep energy levels due to traps. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the fundamentals of these measurement techniques and describe typical experimental setups and methods of analysis for the determination of important trap parameters, such as the activation energy, the carrier capture cross-section, and the trap density.