We aimed to determine the following things: the frequency of patients with Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) during the last 10 years among those patients admitted with fever and rash, their clinical features, and the factors predicting the diagnosis of MSF among patients admitted with fever and rash. Between 1993-2002, the files of all patients admitted to our hospital with fever and rash were collected. The clinical features and serologic results of the patients diagnosed with MSF were further investigated. The diagnosis of MSF was established by epidemiological and clinical features and also by the clinical response within 2 days after doxycycline treatment. During the previous 10 years, 140 patients were admitted with fever and rash, and 15 (10%; four females, 11 males; mean age: 41 years; range: 17-70) of them were diagnosed with MSF. Clinical features were as follows: fever (100%), rash (100%), myalgia and/or arthralgia (93%), headache (87%), petechiae (27%), tache noire (13%), leucocytosis (74%), thrombocytopenia (33%), and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (100%). In nine of these patients, the diagnosis of MSF was established by epidemiological and clinical features and was confirmed by serologic studies. As a complication, one patient developed facial paralysis. Six (40%) were given several antibiotics. In conclusion, MSF should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a patient is admitted with fever, maculopapular rash, headache, myalgia and/or arthralgia, especially in spring, summer, or autumn.