Acute hepatic failure has been reported in the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia may also occur in the course of this infection. We report a rare case of fulminant hepatic failure and autoinumme hemolytic anemia associated with Epstein-Barr virus. A seven-year-old girl was admitted with the complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. She was irritable, confused and had mild hepatomegaly with marked splenomegaly. Serum aminotransferase levels were moderately elevated, while direct and indirect bilirubin levels were markedly elevated. Prothrombin time was prolonged. Hemoglobin was 3.9 g/dl. Anti-HAV IgM, HbsAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HCV and anti-CMV IgM were negative, while IgM VCA EBV, IgG VCA EBV and anti-CMV IgG were positive. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were normal. The patient received supportive therapy for hepatic failure. Meanwhile, the cause of the deep anemia was investigated and autoimmune hemolytic anemia was ascertained by means of increased reticulocyte count and positive Coombs test. Corticosteroid therapy was administered. The prognosis was good. Although not reported before, the combination of acute hepatic failure and autoimmune hemolytic anemia may complicate the course of EBV infection. Physicians need to be aware of this association. (C) 2002 The British Infection Society.