Background/Aims: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by recurrent fever attacks and polyserositis which may lead to the development of AA amyloidosis and end-stage renal disease ( ESRD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in FMF-amyloidosis patients with ESRD. Methods: Forty age- and sex-matched patients undergoing CAPD at our centre between 1996 and 2002 were included in the study. Of these, 10 had FMF-amyloidosis, 10 had diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 had chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and 10 had chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN). Efficiency of CAPD, development of complications, presence of other diseases and survival were compared. Results: With the onset of ESRD, the frequency of FMF peritonitis attacks decreased, with less attacks occurring during CAPD in FMF-amyloidosis patients (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the FMF-amyloidosis group and other groups in terms of efficiency of CAPD, peritoneal function, complications and survival. DM patients had a shorter survival period compared with CGN and CIN patients (p < 0.05), but there was no survival difference between FMF-amyloidosis patients and other groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that CAPD is an effective and safe renal replacement therapy for FMF-amyloidosis patients with ESRD. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.