Three new species of Turcinoemacheilus are described from Iran and Turkey raising the number of species in this genus to six, five of them in the Middle East. Turcinoemacheilus bahaii, new species, from the Zayandeh River in Iran is distinguished by having the anus situated in a posterior position and a dark brown blotch on each side of the anal-fin base in both sexes. Turcinoemacheilus minimus, new species, from the upper Euphrates drainage in Turkey is distinguished by having the anus situated in an anterior position, a slender and long caudal peduncle and a very small maximum size (up to 38 mm SL). Turcinoemacheilus saadii, new species, from the Karoun drainage in Iran is distinguished by having the anus situated in an anterior position and an unique colour pattern of large dark brown saddles. In the Middle East, all Turcinoemacheilus species are well distinguished by molecular characters and show between 5.3 and 8.5 % K2P sequence divergence in their COI barcode region.