Lung cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease which is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. NF-kappa B is a transcription factor which is known to affect the expression of more than 150 genes related to inflammation, lymphocyte activation, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as contributing to cell apoptosis and survival. However, NF-kappa BIA (I kappa B alpha) is the inhibitor of the transcription factor. The -94ins/delATTG polymorphism of the NF-kappa B1 gene promoter region which causes a functional effect and NF-kappa BIA 3'UTR A -> G polymorphism has been shown to be related to various inflammatory diseases and cancer. Ninety-five NSCLC patients and 99 healthy controls were included in study. The NF-kappa B1-94ins/delATTG and NF-kappa BIA 3'UTR A -> G polymorphism have been studied by using PCR-RFLP method. It was found that the NF-kappa B1-94ins/delATTG DD genotype and D allele frequencies were higher in patients than healthy controls and the presence of the DD genotype has a 3.5-fold increased risk of the disease (P: 0.014). This study is the first to investigate theNF-kappa B1-94ins/delATTG and NF-kappa BIA 3'UTR A -> G polymorphism together in the Turkish population. According to the results, the NF-kappa B1-94ins/delATTG promoter polymorphism may have a role in lung carcinogenesis and prognosis.