Electroclinical Features and Long-term Seizure Outcome in Patients With Eyelid Myoclonia With Absences

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Cerulli Irelli E., Cocchi E., Ramantani G., Caraballo R. H., Giuliano L., Yilmaz T., ...More

Neurology, vol.98, no.18, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 98 Issue: 18
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000200165
  • Journal Name: Neurology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, MEDLINE, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo, Veterinary Science Database
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


© American Academy of Neurology.Background and ObjectivesEyelid myoclonia (EM) with absences (EMA) is a generalized epilepsy syndrome with a prognosis and clinical characteristics that are still partially undefined. We investigated electroclinical endophenotypes and long-term seizure outcome in a large cohort of patients with EMA.MethodsIn this multicenter retrospective study, patients with EMA with ≥5 years of follow-up were included. We investigated prognostic patterns and sustained terminal remission (STR), along with their prognostic factors. Moreover, a 2-step cluster analysis was used to investigate the presence of distinct EMA endophenotypes.ResultsWe included 172 patients with a median age at onset of 7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 5-10 years) and a median follow-up duration of 14 years (IQR 8.25-23.75 years). Sixty-six patients (38.4%) displayed a nonremission pattern, whereas remission and relapse patterns were encountered in 56 (32.6%) and 50 (29.1%) participants. Early epilepsy onset, history of febrile seizures (FS), and EM status epilepticus significantly predicted a nonremission pattern according to multinomial logistic regression analysis. STR was achieved by 68 (39.5%) patients with a mean latency of 14.05 years (SD ±12.47 years). Early epilepsy onset, psychiatric comorbid conditions, and a history of FS and generalized tonic-clonic seizures were associated with a lower probability of achieving STR according to a Cox regression proportional hazards model. Antiseizure medication (ASM) withdrawal was attempted in 62 of 172 patients, and seizures recurred in 74.2%. Cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct clusters with 86 patients each. Cluster 2, which we defined as EMA-plus, was characterized by an earlier age at epilepsy onset, higher rate of intellectual disability, EM status epilepticus, generalized paroxysmal fast activity, self-induced seizures, FS, and poor ASM response, whereas cluster 1, the EMA-only cluster, was characterized by a higher rate of seizure remission and more favorable neuropsychiatric outcome.DiscussionEarly epilepsy onset was the most relevant prognostic factor for poor treatment response. A long latency between epilepsy onset and ASM response was observed, suggesting the effect of age-related brain changes in EMA remission. Last, our cluster analysis showed a clear-cut distinction of patients with EMA into an EMA-plus insidious subphenotype and an EMA-only benign cluster that strongly differed in terms of remission rates and cognitive outcomes.