To examine the influence of oxidative stress on oxidative protein damage, we studied 47 Type I diabetic patients with and without complications. We determined plasma protein carbonyl, plasma protein thiol and nitrotyrosine levels as markers of oxidative protein damage, plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels as markers of oxidative stress, and plasma total thiol, plasma nonprotein thiol, erythrocyte glutathione, plasma ceruloplasmin, transferrin and total iron binding capacity as markers of free radical scavenging. There were no significant differences in nitrotyrosine, total plasma thiol, protein thiol, and erythrocyte glutathione levels between diabetic patients with complications and without complications. However, plasma protein carbonyl, lipid hydroperoxide, and nonprotein thiol levels were significantly increased in diabetic patients with complications compared with diabetic patients without complications. Although redox status of plasma is impaired in diabetic patients, we suppose these significantly different markers reflect enhanced oxidative protein damage in diabetic patients with complications.