Although controversial, diminished activity of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a regulatory enzyme of homocysteine metabolism, may predispose to migraine in Turkish people. In a case-control study, we determined the prevalence of two common MTHFR polymorphisms,C677T and A1298C, in 102 migraine patients (23 migraine with aura, 70 migraine without aura and nine with tension-type headache) and compared it to that of 136 healthy controls. The frequencies of the T allele of MTHFR677 and the C allele of MTHFR1298 were significantly higher in the total migraine population (33.82%, 33.82%) than in controls (25.38% and 24.26%), respectively. The genotypes T677T and C1298C were the only genotypes significantly associated with migraine (OR=5.702; 95% CI=1.184-27.457; P=0.015) and (OR=8.933; 95% CI=1.953-40.869; P=0.001), respectively). Individuals with migraine with aura with C1298C and C677C/C1298C genotypes were even more profoundly associated with migraine risk than others (OR=14.105; 95% CI=2.417-82.320; P=0.0001) and (OR=10.050; 95% CI=1.580-63.907; P=0.003), respectively. However individuals with migraine without aura with T677T and C1298C genotypes showed the same susceptibility (OR=7.444; 95% CI=1.503-36.863); P=0.005). Patients with C1298C and C677C/C1298C genotypes may also predispose to tension-type headache (OR=8.375; 95% CI=0.685-102.458); P=0.049). (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.