Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between market orientation and product innovation and the mediating role of technological capability in this relationship. It also aims to examine the effect of market orientation on product innovation within the framework of technological intensity classification of the fields of business activity. Design/methodology/approach The research data were obtained from 186 senior and mid-level managers of 627 manufacturing firms that are widely considered to be innovative, and that are ranked among Turkey's largest 1,000 manufacturing firms (ISO 1000). The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings Customer orientation and interfunctional coordination, two distinct dimensions of market orientation, had positive effects on product innovation. Technological capability played a mediating role in the effect of customer orientation and interfunctional coordination on product innovation. In addition, interfunctional coordination positively affected product innovation in firms with low technological intensity, whereas customer orientation positively affected product innovation in firms with medium-high technological intensity. Practical implications For the success of product innovations, firms should establish mechanisms to obtain information about customer needs and expectations and to disseminate and effectively use this information among organizational functions. They also need to improve their technological capabilities to effectively transform market knowledge into product innovation. Originality/value The relationship between market orientation and product innovation has been examined in previous studies; however, there is an insufficient number of studies on the mediating role of technological capability in this relationship. This study aimed to eliminate the gap in the literature regarding the mediating role of technological capability. In addition, innovation activities of firms vary depending on the technological intensity, but only a limited number of evaluations have been conducted on this subject. This study contributes valuable knowledge to the relevant literature by examining the impact of market orientation dimensions on product innovation according to technological intensity.