Coronary artery disease (CAD) is still the preliminary cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Identification of novel predictive and therapeutic biomarkers is crucial for accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the CAD. The aim of this study was to detect novel candidate miRNA biomarker that may be used in the management of CAD. We performed miRNA profiling in whole blood samples of angiographically confirmed Turkish men with CAD and non-CAD controls with insignificant coronary stenosis. Validation of microarray results was performed by qRT-PCR in a larger cohort of 62 samples. We subsequently assessed the diagnostic value of the miRNA and correlations of miRNA with clinical parameters. miRNA-target identification and network analyses were conducted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Hsa-miR-584-5p was one of the top significantly dysregulated miRNA observed in miRNA microarray. Men-specific down-regulation (p = 0.040) of hsa-miR-584-5p was confirmed by qRT-PCR. ROC curve analysis highlighted the potential diagnostic value of hsa-miR-584-5p with a power area under the curve (AUC) of 0.714 and 0.643 in men and in total sample, respectively. The expression levels of hsa-miR-584-5p showed inverse correlation with stenosis and Gensini scores. IPA revealed CDH13 as the only CAD related predicted target for the miRNA with biological evidence of its involvement in CAD. This study suggests that hsa-miR-584-5p, known to be tumor suppressor miRNA, as a candidate biomarker for CAD and highlighted its putative role in the CAD pathogenesis. The validation of results in larger samples incorporating functional studies warrant further research.