Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease and the most common systemic association of uveitis in children. JIA is subdivided into seven clinically more homogeneous subtypes, using the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) classification system: systemic arthritis, oligoarthritis, rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarthritis, RF-positive polyarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, enthesitis-related arthritis, and undifferentiated arthritis. Uveitis is very rare in patients with systemic onset JIA and in patients with juvenile-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with early-onset antinuclear antibody (ANA)-positive oligoarticular JIA have the highest risk of developing chronic iridocyclitis. Ocular involvement in enthesitis-related arthritis is characterized by recurrent acute symptomatic iridocyclitis. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of JIA are based on history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations, including complete blood count, acute-phase reactants, ANA, RF, HLA-B27, and musculoskeletal imaging studies. Recent studies have revealed distinct gene expression profiles that may be useful in the diagnosis, classification, and follow-up of JIA patients.