Background. The authors aimed to investigate the effects of montelukast (ML) on the experimental rat colon anastomosis. Methods. A total of 80 Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, colon anastomosis, and colon anastomosis with oral administration (OAML) and rectal administration of 10 mg/kg/d ML (RAML). Anastomotic bursting pressure, anastomotic hydroxyproline contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and the expressions of Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with immunohistochemistry were assessed on postoperative day 5. Results. Anastomotic bursting pressures and bFGF expressions were not changed, whereas tissue hydroxyproline concentrations and MDA levels and the expressions of Ki-67 and VEGF were significantly decreased, and GSH, GPX, and SOD levels were significantly increased in the OAML and RAML groups. Conclusion. ML causes impairment of wound healing without altering the anastomosis bursting pressure and reverses the oxidative damage of the colon anastomoses in rats.