Los "Institutos Campesinos" de Turquía. Una utopía cultural truncada


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HORTA SANZ M. J.

I Uluslararası Çok Alanlı bir bakış açısından Kültür Kongresi, Alcala De Henares (Madrid), Spain, 16 - 18 March 2017, vol.1, no.1, pp.5-22

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 1
  • City: Alcala De Henares (Madrid)
  • Country: Spain
  • Page Numbers: pp.5-22

Abstract

«VILLAGE INSTITUTES» OF TURKEY AN ABONDANED CULTURAL UTOPIA When the Turkish Republic was proclaimed, nearly 90% of the population in the countryside were illiterate. Therefore, one of the most important objectives of the Ministry of Education was to provide schools and teachers to all villages. In addition to that, training children and adults would help to develop the rural world in the modern sense, transforming its inhabitants into citizens of full rights. To achieve this, they decided to create specific training courses for the rural teachers-to-be, having in mind their students would be from the same environment. After some research and experiments, in 1940 were created the Village Institutes (Köy Enstitüleri). The idea came from İsmail Hakkı Tonguç, an important pedagogue who defended an education integrated with the rural environment. The curriculum included not only the usual lessons but also the others focused on the improvement of the life in the countryside (agricultural and livestock techniques, health education, home economy, accounting, etc.) and in its cultural development (music, theatre, sports, etc.). This initiative was put into practice with surprisingly good results, although those were very critical years for the country. Unfortunately, since the beginning the Institutes suffered many criticisms, which led to the destitution of Tonguç in 1946, and a transformation of the Institutes that twisted completely their original principles. The definitive dissolution occurred in 1954.