IntroductionThe reporting of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) related to anticancer agents without known antiresorptive properties (non-antiresorptives), such as antiangiogenics, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and cytotoxic chemotherapy is increasing.ObjectiveTo review characteristics of ONJ in cancer patients receiving non-antiresorptives.MethodsA systematic review of the literature between 2009 and 2017 was conducted by the Bone Study Group of MASCC/ISOO.ResultsOf 6249 articles reviewed and from personal communication, 42 ONJ cases related to non-antiresorptives were identified. No gender predilection was noted. Median age was 60years and ONJ stage 2 was most common, with predilection for posterior mandible. Exposed bone, pain, and infection were common at diagnosis. In comparison to bone targeting agents (BTAs), radiology, histology, and management were similar, with medication often discontinued. Delayed diagnosis (median 8weeks) was noted.Important differences included earlier time to ONJ onset (median 20weeks), absence of trigger event (40%), and greater likelihood of healing and shorter healing time (median 8weeks) as compared to BTA-related ONJ. Gastrointestinal cancers predominated, followed by renal cell carcinomas compared to breast, followed by prostate cancers in BTA-related ONJ, reflecting different medications.ConclusionsData about non-antiresorptive-related ONJ is sparse. This type of ONJ may have better prognosis compared to the BTA-related ONJ, suggested by greater likelihood of healing and shorter healing time. However, the delay in diagnosis highlights the need for more education. This is the first attempt to characterize ONJ associated with different non-antiresorptives, including BRAF and immune checkpoint inhibitors.