Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

Aydin Y. M., Yaman B., Koca H., Dasdemir O., KARA M., ALTIOK H., ...More

SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol.490, pp.239-253, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO2) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 mu mol/m(2) s PAR and 30 degrees C temperature for isoprene and 30 degrees C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 mu g/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 mu g/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and beta-myrcene were generally emitted by coniferous species. Oxygenated compounds were the third most prominent BVOC group and sesquiterpenes had slightly lower contributions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.