Intramedullary fully-threaded pins were manufactured from an alloy of titanium, aluminium and vanadium in a fully-threaded style. Pins were produced in various diameters, ranging from 4 mm to 11 mm. Pin lengths varied from 5 cm to 22 cm. The proximal end of the pins was designed to fit into a hexagonal screwdriver, while the distal end was slightly tapered to allow for ease of entry into cancellous bone.
Treatment using the fully-threaded intramedullary pin was carried out in a total of 175 fractures of the humerus, femur, and tibia in 95 cats (bilateral femur in 1 case) and 77 dogs (bilateral femur in 2 cases).
Radiographic follow-up for the cases was performed at monthly intervals. Non-union developed in one dog with a femoral fracture in which cerclage wire had also been used. Delayed healing and lameness were observed in two other dogs. Healing with excessive callus formation was observed in 16 dogs. However, there were not any problems noted in these dogs in regards to limb usage. Clinical and radiological results obtained for the remaining cases were found to be very good. Normal, complete fracture healing occurred between four to 14 weeks in dogs, and between four to 12 weeks in cats. Pins were removed upon observation of satisfactory functional and radiographic recovery. Pins could not be removed from 26 cats and 21 dogs as the owners had declined pin removal, or because the owners were lost to follow-up.