In predicting the aggressive behavior of bladder tumors, the histopathological characteristics of grade and invasive stage are of principal importance. However, for predicting tumor recurrence and progression, these are sufficient only to a limited extent, particularly in the case of superficial (pTa and pT1) urothelial cell carcinomas. New prognostic factors are therefore needed to avoid either insufficient or excessive treatment. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prognostic value of the p53 and Ki-67 immunoreactivity indices. The present study included 118 superficial urinary bladder tumors consisting of 58 recurrent and 60 non-recurrent cases. Twenty of the recurrent tumors progressed into a higher grade and/or invasive stage. Paraffin immunohistochemical analysis was carried out using anti-p53 and anti-Ki-67 antibodies on the initial tumor tissues. We concluded that there is a highly significant relationship between the p53 and Ki-67 immunoreactivities and the histological grade and pathological stage of the tumors (P<0.0001). We observed a significant relationship between the presence of recurrence and progression and the p53 immunoreactivity index (P<0.01 and P =0.017, respectively) and Ki-67 immunoreactivity index (P<0.0001 and P=0.046, respectively). Positivity for p53 and Ki-67 can demonstrate the risk of recurrence (p53: sensitivity = 76%, specificity = 58%; Ki-67: sensitivity = 86%, specificity = 48%) and progression (p53: sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 46%; Ki-67: sensitivity = 85%, specificity = 36%; ). We believe that both of these immunohistochemical markers can be considered valuable in addition to classical histopathological prognostic parameters for predicting recurrence and progression risks.