Effects of weight intervention-induced changes in pathological fat mass of patients with extreme obesity and anorexia nervosa on adipokines and visceral adipocyte functions: A prospective, comparative, observational study


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Calikoglu B., Caklili O. T., Uzum A. K., Yucel B., Tutuncu Y., Kurt A., ...More

European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol.28, no.4, pp.1439-1455, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.26355/eurrev_202402_35474
  • Journal Name: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1439-1455
  • Keywords: Adipokines, Anorexia nervosa, Extreme obesity, Fat mass changes, Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass, Visceral adiposity index
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ in the human body, and as its mass changes, the serum levels of the molecules it secretes also change. Visceral adipose tissue index (VAI) is a simple surrogate marker of visceral adipose tissue dysfunction. This study evaluated the effects of changes in fat mass on adipocytokine behavior and VAI in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and extreme obesity (EO). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of three subgroups: Group 1, patients with EO who were candidates for obesity surgery with BMI?50 kg/m2 (n=20). G roup 2 , n ewly diagnosed patients with AN (n=12). Group 3 controls with BMI 20-25 kg/m2 (n=20). The AN and EO groups were followed until at least a 10% weight change before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Prior to the intervention, EO patients exhibited the lowest levels of apelin, omentin, and adiponectin, while AN patients demonstrated the highest levels of these markers. Leptin and IL-6 were elevated in EO and reduced in AN patients. After treatment, all adipokines and VAI increased in AN patients, and omentin, adiponectin, and IL-6 increased in EO patients, while apelin, leptin, and VAI decreased. The change in each adipocytokine () was positively correlated with the other adipocytokines (p0.050) and negatively correlated with metabolic and VAI changes (p0.050). The regression analysis determined that the following variables were associated with the change in adipose tissue mass: Apelin (OR: 1.061; p=0.028) and adiponectin (OR: 1.057; p=0.036). CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with pathological adipocyte mass, the change in adipocytokine levels in response to weight change is not as expected. The fact that these changes are not seen in the early period of the weight intervention treatment indicates that these patients have compensatory physiological mechanisms to protect them. In addition, using VAI instead of BMI, whose reliability is increasingly questioned because it does not reflect body fat mass, can be considered an alternative. However, there may be modeling errors in the early stages of weight change and in AN and EO patients where metabolic parameters reach extreme values. Therefore, it should be tested in studies where larger patient groups are followed for a more extended period. ClinicalTrials gov ID: NCT04663919.