To evaluate the effect of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) Taq1B gene polymorphism on serum lipid profile in Turkish coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, we investigated Taq1B gene polymorphisin of CETP and serum lipid levels in 111 controls and in 173 CAD patients with myocardial infarction. There were no significant differences in the allele distribution at this polymorphic locus between the population sample and patients with coronary artery disease with myocardial infarction. To detect the association between the Taq1B RFLP and serum lipid levels, we determined the serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the subjects studied and correlated the results to the Taq1B RFLP. Patients with Taq B1B1 genotypes had lower HDL-C levels than patients with B2B2 genotype (p = 0.003). Also in control subjects with Taq BIB I genotype, lower HDL-C levels (p = 0.05) and higher triglyceride levels (p = 0.017) and body mass index (p = 0.05) were observed compared with control subjects with the B1B2 genotype. It was observed that in our population the distribution of CETP Taq1B genotypes is similar to other populations (except Greeks). The present study demonstrates that CETP Taq1B gene polymorphism may be responsible for low HDL cholesterol levels in patients with CAD and in healthy controls in Turkey. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.