There is increasing evidence for a direct relationship between the vascular system and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to investigate endocan and adhesion molecules such as P-selectin derived from the endothelium and platelets in obese children and adolescents with NAFLD. One hundred obese patients and 40 lean controls were enrolled. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver. Blood samples were assayed for endocan, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Obese patients with NAFLD presented higher ALT and insulin levels, as well as more profound dyslipidemia when compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were found increased in both obese groups, regardless of NAFLD. In obese subjects with NAFLD, decreased P-selectin levels (51.6 +/- 4.14ng/mL) were detected as compared with the obese (72.3 +/- 4.23) and control (74.2 +/- 6.97) subjects. Furthermore, circulating P-selectin levels were closely associated with endocan levels (r=0.852, p<0.001). Childhood obesity leads to vascular inflammation and therefore may cause a predisposition to atherosclerosis at an early age. The possible outcome of decreased P-selectin levels with NAFLD development must be further investigated.