Detection of primary myelofibrosis in blood serum via Raman spectroscopy assisted by machine learning approaches; correlation with clinical diagnosis


Guleken Z., Ceylan Z., Aday A., Bayrak A. G., Hindilerden İ. Y., Nalçacı M., ...More

NANOMEDICINE-NANOTECHNOLOGY BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

Abstract

Primary myelofibrosis (PM) is one of the myeloproliferative neoplasm, where stem cell-derived clonal neoplasms was noticed. Diagnosis of this disease is based on: physical examination, peripheral blood findings, bone marrow morphology, cytogenetics, and molecular markers. However, the molecular marker of PM, which is a mutation in the JAK2V617F gene, was observed also in other myeloproliferative neoplasms such as polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. Therefore, there is a need to find methods that provide a marker unique to PM and allow for higher accuracy of PM diagnosis and consequently the treatment of the disease. Continuing, in this study, we used Raman spectroscopy, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis as helpful diagnostic tools for PM. Consequently, we used serum collected from PM patients, which were classified using clinical parameters of PM such as the dynamic international prognostic scoring system (DIPSS) for primary myelofibrosis plus score, the JAK2V617F mutation, spleen size, bone marrow reticulin fibrosis de-gree and use of hydroxyurea drug features. Raman spectra showed higher amounts of C-H, C-C and C-C/C-N and amide II and lower amounts of amide I and vibrations of CH3 groups in PM patients than in healthy ones. Furthermore, shifts of amides II and I vibrations in PM patients were noticed. Machine learning methods were used to analyze Raman regions: (i) 800 cm-1 and 1800 cm-1, (ii) 1600 cm -1-1700 cm-1, and (iii) 2700 cm -1-3000 cm-1 showed 100 % accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Differences in the spectral dynamic showed that differences in the amide II and amide I regions were the most significant in distinguishing between PM and healthy subjects. Importantly, until now, the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy has not been established in clinical diagnostics of PM disease using the correlation between Raman spectra and PM clinical prognostic scoring. Continuing, our results showed the correlation between Raman signals and bone marrow fibrosis, as well as JAKV617F. Consequently, the results revealed that Raman spectroscopy has a high potential for use in medical laboratory diagnostics to quantify multiple biomarkers simultaneously, especially in the selected Raman regions.