Density and strength characteristics of foamed gypsum

Colak A.

CEMENT & CONCRETE COMPOSITES, vol.22, no.3, pp.193-200, 2000 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2000
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0958-9465(00)00008-1
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.193-200
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


This paper deals with the effect of substances producing and assisting gas and foam formation on the properties of gypsum density and strength. The gas-based foaming method utilises aluminium sulphate, potassium alum or ammonium bicarbonate for the chemical production of gas bubbles in gypsum paste. The second method obtains foamed gypsum by means of air entrainment in wet gypsum paste. The foaming agents chosen were sodium lauryl sulphate and nonyl phenol ethoxylate that are widely employed in detergent production. Five different foaming techniques are obtained with these additives required for gas and foam production. Citric acid, as retarder, and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), as viscosity increasing agent, were used for promoting foam and gas formation during the foaming experiments. Aluminium sulphate was discovered to be the one that achieves the most foaming in gypsum. The techniques utilising potassium alum, sodium lauryl sulphate and ammonium bicarbonate reduced the density of gypsum products by values varying between 30% and 35%. Foaming with nonyl phenol ethoxylate had an insignificant effect on density. The addition of citric acid and carboxyl methyl cellulose assisted with density reduction. Besides regulating the hardening time, citric acid supported density reduction by releasing gas through a reaction with marble powder. However, an addition of CMC above 0.1% or 0.2% causes a density increase by preventing bubbles to expand and merge with each other. The compressive strength of low-density gypsum products falls well below 10 Mpa, stipulated by TS 370 for building gypsum. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.