The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to identify breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography rates and to examine variables related to the breast cancer screening behaviours in a sample of Turkish women. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 656 women, attending three health centres and two maternal and health centres, using an adapted version of Champion's revised Health Belief Model Scale. Results showed that 17% of the women reported performing BSE on a regular basis. Women, over the age of 40, 25% reported at least one mammography. Higher susceptibility to breast cancer, higher confidence for BSE, lower barriers to BSE, and having heard/read about breast cancer and BSE were significantly associated with performing BSE. Higher seriousness of breast cancer, higher benefits of having mammography, having heard/read about mammography, and having a gynaecologist as a regular physician were significantly associated with having mammography. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.