Background We evaluated the risk factors for the requirement of surgical intervention in infants with nephrolithiasis. Methods The medical records of 122 (156 kidney units (KU)) infants were reviewed. The clinical features, stone characteristics, changes in stone status, and treatment protocols were noted. The stone status of the KU was categorized into 3 groups according to the change in size between the first and last ultrasound: resolution, unchanged, and growth. Results The median age was 8 months (r: 2-12). The median length of follow-up was 16 months (r: 10-36). Resolution was detected in 94 KUs (60%). Stone growth was detected in 39 KUs (25%), and stone size was unchanged in 23 KUs (15%). Surgical intervention was required in 26 patients (17%). A history of intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up and a stone size > 5 mm at time of diagnosis were defined as independent risk factors for stone growth (p= 0.005, < 0.001, respectively). The surgical intervention rate was higher in stones > 5 mm and stones with pelvic localization (p= 0.018, 0.021, respectively). Stone resolution was higher in patients with stone size <= 5 mm (p= 0.018). Conclusion A stone size > 5 mm at the time of diagnosis and a history of ICU follow-up are independent risk factors for stone growth. Pelvic localization of stones and stones > 5 mm are associated with an increased risk of surgical intervention.