We aimed to evaluate the predictors of the severity of chronic rheumatic valvar disease. The long term follow-up records of 139 patients with chronic rheumatic carditis were reviewed. Children were followed-up on an outpatient basis for a period ranging from 1-16 years (5.0 +/- 3.7 years). Mitral regurgitation either isolated (51%, n=71) or combined with aortic regurgitation (AR) (49%, n = 68) was observed in all cases of the initial attack of rheumatic carditis. AR at initial attack of the rheumatic carditis was found to be affected by gender (AR was more associated with males, p = 0.032), combined mitral and aortic regurgitation (CMAR), and presence of MR at initial attack (p = 0.000 and p = 0.012, respectively) with univariate analysis. The effect of CMAR on AR at initial attack was also significant by multivariate analysis (p = 0.000). CMAR, MR, and AR at initial attack had significant effects on CMAR at final evaluation (p = 0.000, p = 0.020, and p = 0.000, respectively) in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed the significant effects of CMAR and MR at initial attack on CMAR at final evaluation (p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that MR and AR at initial attack, and CMAR at final evaluation, had significant effects on MR at final evaluation (p = 0.000, p = 0.029, and p = 0.000, respectively). MR at initial attack and CMAR at final evaluation had significant effects on MR at final evaluation with multivariate analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). AR at final evaluation was affected by CMAR and AR at initial attack (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively), and CMAR and MR at final evaluation (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively) with both univariate and multivariate analysis. Mitral valve prolapsus was more common in patients with a longer duration (37.5%, 6 out of 16) than those with a shorter duration (11%, 14 out of 123) and the difference was significant (p = 0.020). In conclusion, the initial severity of valve involvement and the presence of CMAR at initial attack were found to be the best predictors for the severity of chronic rheumatic valvar disease in this study.