Pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore) leaves: Experimental and modeling study

Sahin S. , Ilbay Z. , Kirbaslar S. I.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATIONS, vol.205, pp.717-726, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 205 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00986445.2017.1328414
  • Page Numbers: pp.717-726


Pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE) of flavonoids and polyphenols from mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore) leaves was examined. The response surface methodology (RSM) via face-centered central composite design (FCCD) was used to investigate the effects of extraction time (15-75min), output amplitude (30-70%), and pH (4-10) to optimize the extraction process. The total phenolic material (TPM) and the total flavonoid material (TFM) and also the consumed energy of horn were measured as responses. Additionally, calorimetric calculations were done to evaluate the ultrasound energy dissipated into the solution. The calculated quadratic models were highly significant (p<0.0001) for all the parameters studied with high correlation coefficients (R-2) of 0.9722, 0.9805, and 0.9983. The results of the present study suggest that 65min, 68.72min, 15.00 extraction time, 61%, 59%, and 30% of ultrasound amplitude and 4, 6.7, and 4 pH of solution should be considered as optimal extraction conditions to get the optimum TPM (37.845mg-GAE/g-DL), TFM (10.709mg-CE/g-DL), and energy consumption (6130.275 Joule) for PUAE of mandarin leaves, respectively.