This study was performed on 17 hyperthyroid patients and 15 healthy controls. The patients were under propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy at a dosage of 3 x 100 mg/day for one month. Blood samples, taken at the beginning and on the 30(th) day of therapy, were analyzed for hormonal parameters (T-3, T-4, TSH), lipid peroxidation end-product [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and antioxidant status parameters: glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZn SOD). Hyperthyroid patients were observed to have significantly higher TEARS, GSH and CuZn SOD levels than controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). PTU therapy caused a relief in oxidative stress as reflected by significantly decreased TEARS levels (P < 0.001) and a selective modification in the antioxidant status parameters: significant decreases in GSH and CuZn SOD levels (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in GSH Pr (P<0.01) activity. Our findings suggest a selective modification of the antioxidative profile in hyperthyroidism. PTU should also be considered as an in vivo antioxidant, in addition to its antithyroid action.