Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect on the peripheral blood lymphocytes potentially induced by Re-186 in paediatric age group undergoing radiosynovectomy for haemophilic synovitis, by using chromosomal aberration analysis (CA) and the micronuclei (MN) assay for detecting chromosomal aberrations, as well as the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) technique for assessing DNA damage. Methods: Cytogenetic analyses were evaluated in 20 boys (mean age: 13.8 +/- 2.7 years) before, and 2 and 90 days after radiosynovectomy from the peripheral lymphocytes of the patients. joint retention and extra-articular spread of the radionuclides were evaluated by using quantitative gamma camera imaging. Results: Imaging after radiosynovectomy revealed local lymph node visualization in 8 (40%) patients and hepatosplenic visualization in 3 (15%) patients due to extra-articular leakage of radioactive material. The mean frequency of chromosome aberrations (0.2 +/- 0.4/1000 cells) determined prior to the onset of therapy was not significantly increased in comparison with control values obtained 2 days (0.4 +/- 0.5/1000 cells) and 90 days (0.2 0.4/1000 cells) after therapy (P = 0.754 and P = 1.0). In the analysis of MN and SCE, when we compare the baseline levels, the mean MN and SCE frequencies were slightly higher in the control analyses performed 2 and 90 days after radiosynovectomy but there were no significant differences between baseline and control levels (chi(2) = 2.621, P = 0.270 and F = 0.573, P = 0.569, respectively). Conclusion: The major finding of this study with relatively small sample is that, radiosynovectomy with Re-186 does not seem to induce early genotoxic effects on the peripheral blood lymphocytes in paediatric age group.