Diagnostic criteria for Buerger’s disease: International Consensus of VaS - european Independent Foundation in angiology/Vascular Medicine

Fazeli B., Poredos P., Kozak M., Pecsvarady Z., Catalano M., Al Salman M. M., ...More

International Angiology, vol.42, no.5, pp.396-401, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.23736/s0392-9590.23.05098-8
  • Journal Name: International Angiology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.396-401
  • Keywords: Consensus, Diagnosis, Thromboangiitis obliterans, Peripheral arterial disease
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Buerger’s disease (BD) remains a debilitating condition and early diagnosis is paramount for its effective management. Despite many published diagnostic criteria for BD, selective criteria have been utilized in different vascular centers to manage patients with BD worldwide. A recent international Delphi Consensus Study on the diagnostic criteria of BD showed that none of these published diagnostic criteria have been universally accepted as a gold standard. Apart from the presence of smoking, these published diagnostic criteria have distinct differences between them, rendering the direct comparison of patient outcomes difficult. Hence, the expert committees from the Working Group of the VAS-European Independent Foundation in Angiology/Vascular Medicine critically reviewed the findings from the Delphi study and provided practical recommendations on the diagnostic criteria for BD, facilitating its universal use. We recommend that the ‘definitive’ diagnosis of BD must require the presence of three features (history of smoking, typical angiographic features and typical histopathological features) and the use of a combination of major and minor criteria for the ‘suspected’ diagnosis of BD. The major criterion is the history of active tobacco smoking. The five minor criteria are disease onset at age less than 45 years, ischemic involvement of the lower limbs, ischemic involvement of one or both of the upper limbs, thrombophlebitis migrans and red-blue shade of purple discoloration on edematous toes or fingers. We recommend that a ‘suspected’ diagnosis of BD is confirmed in the presence of a major criterion plus four or more minor criteria. In the absence of the major criterion or in cases of fewer than four minor criteria, imaging and laboratory data could facilitate the diagnosis. Validation studies on the use of these major and minor criteria are underway.