Introduction Vascular intimal hyperplasia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The authors investigated the effects of atorvastatin on vascular intimal hyperplasia. Materials and methods Rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had experimental aortic injury and received intraperitoneal injection of atorvastatin, solvent, or 0.9% NaCl, respectively. Group 4 was a nonintervention (laparotomy only) control group. Animals were sacrificed after 3 weeks. Blood samples and injured aortic segment were analyzed. Results Atorvastatin administration significantly lowered total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P=.012 and P=.001, respectively) intima-media ratio (P=.002), and intimal smooth muscle Cell accumulation (P<.05) in group 1. Luminal narrowing in animals in group 1 was significantly lower than that in animals in groups 2 and 3, but was higher than in animals in group 4 (P=.009). Conclusions Atorvastatin suppresses intimal hyerplasia and aids in intimal regeneration by lowering blood lipids and intimal smooth Muscle Cell accumulation.