Withdrawal is an ancient and prevalent form of male contraception which has largely been ignored by family planning programme managers all over the world. The objective of this study was to understand men's perspectives on withdrawal use, both users and non-users. In-depth interviews with 62 mole factory workers in western Turkey are reported, on use of withdrawal, attitudes to family planning, information on contraception, marital and sexual experience, and gender values and attitudes. Advantages reported both by users and non-users of withdrawal were being free from side effects, ease of access and having no cost. While current users said withdrawal was easy to use and practical, non-users complained about the difficulties of using withdrawal, that it was coitus-dependent, caused anxiety and decreased pleasure during sexual intercourse. Current users emphasised taking responsibility as husbands for family planning and protecting their wives from possible adverse effects of contraceptives. Withdrawal should be seen as a valuable choice in a world where increasing method choice, male participation and responsibility taking in reproductive health are all desirable. With its cited advantages withdrawal is likely to fill an important niche among current contraceptive practices and deserves more attention and support. (c) 2005 Reproductive Health Matters. All rights reserved.